Recycling Record Setters Program Profiles: Residential Programs

Date: 14 Nov 1998 | posted in: waste - recycling, Waste to Wealth | 0 Facebooktwitterredditmail

Updated November 1998
Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Washington, DC

Funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Information in these profiles was provided by program contacts. For corrections and updates or to include new record-setters, please contact Brenda Platt at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance.

Residential Programs

Contact: Tom McMurtrie
Recycling Coordinator
City of Ann Arbor
100 N. Fifth Ave. Ann Arbor, MI 48107
(313) 994-6581

In fiscal year 1996, Ann Arbor (pop. 112,000) achieved a 52% recovery rate of residential waste through curbside recycling, yard trimmings collection and composting, and the state’s bottle return law. Recycle Ann Arbor (RAA), a non-profit organization, runs the city’s recycling program. City crews provide yard trimmings collection and composting services. RAA picks up 23 different recyclable materials weekly on the same day the city collects trash. RAA also runs a drop-off station. City crews collect curbside grass, leaves and brush, which have been banned from the landfill, April 1 through November as well as collecting Christmas trees in January. The city-owned compost site generates $40,000 per year from the sale of compost and mulch. Closing the loop, the Ann Arbor has adopted policies to encourage the use and purchase of recycled content products.

Contact: Gary Brougham
Director of Public Works
Town of Belchertown
290 Jackson Street
Belchertown, MA 01007
(413) 323-0415
fax (413) 323-0470

Belchertown (pop. 2,339) does not provide curbside collection services for either trash or recyclables. Residents who choose to participate are required to purchase a permit to use the town’s Transfer Station and Recycling Center. The town has a pay-as-you-throw system for trash disposal. Residents must pay a per bag fee for trash disposal and a per item fee for special items such as tires and appliances. Source separated recyclables can be left at the Transfer Station. Materials collected include mixed paper; cardboard; glass bottles and jars; milk, juice, and drink cartons; steel and aluminum cans; aluminum trays and foil; and #1, #2, and #3 plastic bottles. The town also provides chipping of brush at the transfer station and a composting area for leaves. Belchertown’s reported 1996 waste reduction was 63%.

Contact: Thomas Spille
Solid Waste Program Administrator
Resource Management and Technology
Utilities Department
City of Bellevue
301 116th Avenue Southeast, Suite 320
P.O. Box 90012 Bellevue, WA 98009-9012
(425) 452-6964
fax (425) 452-7116

Bellevue (pop. 104,000) instituted recycling in 1989. The following year the city restructured trash fees to provide an incentive to lower disposal levels. Residents have responded to the incentive programs so that in 1996, 62% of served households subscribed to trash service of one 30-gallon can or less of trash per week. Bellevue residents recovered 60% of their discards through recycling and composting in 1996 (26% through recycling and 34% through composting). A contractor provides trash, recycling, and composting services. Residents receive weekly curbside collection of recyclable materials and year-round collection of yard debris.

Contact: Nina Herman Seiden
Recycling Program Manager
Bergen County Utilities Authority
Department of Solid Waste Planning and Development
P.O. Box 9 Foot of Mehrhof Road
Little Ferry, New Jersey 07643
(201) 641-2552 x5822
fax (201) 641-3509

Bergen County (pop. 845,189) consists of 70 small, heavily populated municipalities in northeastern New Jersey. The area is largely suburban and home to many individuals who commute to New York City. Each community in Bergen County administers its own waste management program. The Bergen County Utilities Authority provides technical assistance, educational programs, financial assistance, and promotional materials to support the communities with their efforts. Areas of assistance include backyard composting, vermicomposting, waste reduction, household hazardous waste collection, marketing assistance, and business waste audits. Bergen County’s reported municipal solid waste recycling/composting rate for 1995, the most recent year for which data are available, was 62%.

Contact: Francis Veilleux, Director Bluewater Recycling Association
P.O. Box 547
Huron Park, Ontario N0M 1Y0
(519) 228-6678

The Bluewater Recycling Association is a non-profit organization serving more than 125,000 people in some 60 municipalities in Southwestern Ontario. The Association offers several services to its members including an expanded blue box curbside recycling program, backyard composter sales and troubleshooting support, educational curriculum, household hazardous waste days, promotional materials, processing at its 43,000

Contact: David Berry
Solid Waste Manager
PO Box 85
Bowdoinham, ME 04008
(207) 666-3228

In 1996, Bowdoinham (pop. 2,192) recovered 62% of its municipal solid waste. Recycling participation is voluntary but a volume-based fee is charged for waste disposal. Trash disposed at the Bowdoinham landfill dropped by 50% in the first six months after introducing the volume-based fees in 1989. Bowdoinham introduced municipally contracted curbside recycling and trash collection in 1994. Material for recycling is also collected at the town’s drop-off center. Materials accepted include food discards, newspaper, cardboard, magazines, glass, aluminum and ferrous cans, and all plastic resins. An area of the recycling center is also used to display reusable materials, such as furniture, books, and clothing, available free to residents. Leaves, grass clippings, wood waste, and brush are collected free of charge at the town landfill.

Contact: Henry M. Underhill
Borough of Chatham
54 Fairmount Avenue
Chatham, NJ 07928
(201) 635-0674 x108

Chatham (pop. 8,289) residents achieved a 65% recovery rate in 1996. Chatham charges a base rate of $75 per household per year for solid waste and recycling services. The borough imposes an additional charge of $1.45 for a 30-gallon bag or $0.75 for a 15-gallon bag for trash collection. The change to a per bag charge was a hard sell for town officials but the program has worked well. The Chatham recycling program accepts a wide range of materials including cereal boxes, paper juice and milk cartons, metal clothing hangers, aerosol cans, and mixed paper. Leaves, brush, and other yard debris are diverted through composting and account for 66% of the material Chatham residents divert.

Contact: Al DuBois
Recycling Coordinator
City of Clifton
Department of Public Works
307 East 7th Street
Clifton, NJ 07011
(201) 470-2237
fax (201) 340-7049

Through Clifton’s mandatory recycling programs for residents and businesses, the city (pop. 71,742) diverted from disposal 56% of its municipal solid waste in 1996. Residents are offered curbside collection of old newspapers, magazines, mixed paper, glass, aluminum cans, and steel cans once every three weeks. Residents must segregate and place each type of material in a separate container at the curb. Even glass is sorted by color. This method allows Clifton to deliver materials directly to market without having to pay an intermediate processor. Clifton’s drop-off recycling center accepts additional materials such as cardboard, #1 and #2 plastic bottles, and aluminum plates and trays. Grass clippings, leaves, brush, and other yard and garden debris are collected seasonally curbside and account for 32% of total materials recovery. Businesses are required to recycle and are provided technical assistance by the Recycling Coordinator. Small businesses are eligible to receive city trash and recycling services, but large businesses privately contract.

Contact: Buddy Robinson Solid Waste Director
City of Crockett 200 North Fifth
Crockett, TX 75835
(409) 544-5156
fax (409) 544-4976

Prior to 1992, Crockett contracted with a private company to collect and dispose of all waste generated in the city. No materials were recovered for recycling or composting. The city took over trash management in 1992 in the belief that it could provide trash, recycling, and composting services at a lower cost than it had been paying for trash collection and disposal. In 1996, Crockett recycled 20% and composted 32% of its residential waste stream. Crockett’s mandatory, weekly curbside recycling and composting programs and the use of clear bags for trash, composting, and recycling have contributed to the city’s high diversion level. Through a local ordinance, Crockett requires all residents to recycle 22 categories of materials and collect four others for composting. All residents have weekly, year-round collection service for recyclables and yard debris. The use of clear bags allows city staff to readily identify improperly prepared materials for recovery or trash containing recyclables. City staff will not collect improperly set out materials.

Contact: Jeffrey Pratt
Recycling Coordinator
Solid Waste and Recycling Division
City of Dover 288 Central Avenue
Dover, NH 03820
(603) 743-6073
fax (603) 743-6096

Dover (pop. 27,000) offered its residents no recycling program until 1990 when it opened a drop-off recycling center. The next year it started curbside recycling and a month later a pay-as-you-throw system for trash collection. Before the beginning of these programs, Dover’s residents disposed approximately 11,000 tons of solid waste. In 1996, only 4,500 tons of residential waste were disposed. This strictly voluntary recycling program and the pay-as-you-throw trash system resulted in the town’s residents recycling 52% of their residential solid waste in 1996. Dover residents are offered the opportunity to recycle mixed paper, HDPE, PET, glass beverage containers, corrugated cardboard, used motor oil, tires, batteries, aluminum and steel cans, and aseptic packaging. Leaves, clean wood, and yard trimmings are collected for composting at Dover’s drop-off recycling station.

Contact: Annette Mills, Coordinator
Recycling and Litter Prevention
City of Falls Church
Department of Public Works
Harry E. Wells Building
300 Park Avenue
Falls Church, VA 22046-3332
(703) 241-5176
fax (703) 241-5184

In 1996, Falls Church (pop. 9,845) recycled 65% of its residential waste through its curbside and drop-off programs, both of which are voluntary. The city provides collection of magazines, catalogs, corrugated cardboard, newspaper, phone books, glass, cans, #1 and #2 plastic bottles, brush, leaves, other yard trimmings, and appliances. Each fall, approximately 2,000 tons of leaves are collected curbside, processed into mulch, and delivered back to citizens upon request, free of charge. In 1996, Falls Church diverted 31% of its residential waste through its leaf program. The city’s 100 volunteer recycling block captains deliver a quarterly newsletter to residents.

Contact: Kevin Wunder
Project Manager
Public Works Department, City of Fitchburg
2377 S. Fish Hatchery Road
Madison, WI 53711
(608) 275-7141
fax (608) 275-7154

Fitchburg (pop. 15,648) borders Madison to the north and contains both rural farmland and urban areas. Its mandatory recycling program, the first in Wisconsin, began in 1988 and has evolved into a program that is both cost-effective and efficient. Fitchburg’s waste management program includes volume-based trash collection fees (begun in 1994), weekly collection of recyclables, monthly collection of reusable items, subsidized sales of home compost bins, and yard trimmings drop-off. In 1996, the city diverted 50% of its residential solid waste, 29% through recycling and 21% through composting.

Contact: Janet Laird
City of Guelph Works Department
City Hall, 59 Carden Street
Guelph, Ontario N1H 3A1
(519) 837-5604
fax (519) 837-5635

The city of Guelph (pop. 95,000) is the first North American community to adopt an integrated two-stream wet-dry system on a citywide basis. The city began collecting dry waste November 1995, and wet waste February 1996. Approximately 55 to 60% of the dry waste is diverted from disposal; 60 to 65% of the wet waste is diverted.

Contact: Amy Mazzella di Bosco
Lebanon County Recycling Coordinator
Greater Lebanon Refuse Authority
1610 Russell Road
Lebanon, PA 17046
(717) 867-5790, ext. 307
fax (717) 867-5798

With 13 curbside collection programs and seven drop-off centers in its 26 municipalities, Lebanon County (pop. 116,789) recycled 51% of its solid waste in 1995. The county accepts newspaper; corrugated cardboard; aluminum and bimetal cans; glass; plastic milk, soda, and detergent bottles; phone books; magazines; office paper; metals; car batteries; tires; and yard trimmings. In 1995, the county recycled over 43,000 tons of material. Of the 13 municipalities with curbside collection, five have mandatory recycling while eight have voluntary programs. County officials credit its high recovery rate to waste haulers’ cooperation in picking up recyclables on their routes, voluntary recycling coordinators in each community, and public and private organizations and citizens who have all enthusiastically embraced recycling.

Contact: Richard A. Drury
Recycling Coordinator
Town of Leverett
Town Hall
Leverett, MA 01054
(413) 367-9683
fax (413) 367-9683

Leverett, a rural town (pop. 1,965) in western Massachusetts, has achieved a 56% recovery rate through reuse, recycling, composting, and deposit container redemption. Recycling is mandatory; residents bring their recyclables to a local drop-off station. Among the materials accepted for recycling and composting are: aluminum cans, steel cans, glass containers, mixed paper, paperboard, textiles, auto and button batteries, plastics, scrap metal, waste oil, tires, paint, egg crates, leaves, and other yard debris. Leverett has an active swap shop, called “Take it or Leave it,” where residents can leave and/or take reusable items such as books, clothes, and bed frames. Residents pay a flat fee for recycling and a per bag fee for trash pick-up. The town sells home composters and reports that almost everyone composts on their own. Leverett’s total solid waste management budget has decreased as a result of its waste reduction programs. The total waste stream has also decreased.

Contact: Bruce Philbrick
Solid Waste Superintendent
City of Loveland
Solid Waste Division
500 E. Third Street
Loveland, CO 80537
(970) 962-2609
fax (970) 663-8047

In 1996, Loveland residents (pop. 46,940) diverted 56% of their residential solid waste from the landfill. Loveland offers residential curbside recycling coupled with a volume-based rate for trash disposal. April through November the community collects yard trimmings from residents for a nominal fee. Since the initiation of these programs, per household waste generation has dropped and much of the material is now captured for recycling and composting. In 1996, per household disposal levels were less than half of the 1989 levels. The city’s waste diversion program, carried out through dual-collection of recyclables and trash, saves it more than $100,000 per year in avoided capital and operating costs.

Contact: George Dreckmann
Recycling Coordinator
City of Madison
1501 W. Badger Road
Madison, WI 53705-1423
(608) 226-4681

The curbside recycling program in Madison (pop. 200,814) collects glass, metal cans, #1 and #2 plastics, glossy magazines, newspapers, corrugated cardboard, brush, leaves, large items such as tires and white goods, and phone books. Residents pay a flat fee for waste management, except for appliance pick-up for which residents must purchase a sticker. In 1996, the city recovered 49% of its residential waste (32.6% through composting and 16.6% through recycling). In 1992 the city began a home composting program and distributed composting bins to residents at no charge. Since then, the city has sold almost 5,000 bins to residents at or below cost. The city’s goal is to have one-third of residents in single-family homes composting their food discards.

Contact: Kathleen Pelak
Recycling Specialist
Municipal Utilities Authority
County of Morris
P.O. Box 370
Morris Plains, NJ 07945-0370
(973) 285-8392
fax (973) 285-8397

In 1995, Morris County (1995 pop. est. 444,990) surpassed New Jersey’s statewide recycling goal of 60%, by recycling 63% of its total solid waste. Morris County mandates 15 materials to be source separated and recycled by the residential, commercial, and institutional sectors. The list of materials includes mixed paper, yard debris, tires, batteries, white goods and stumps in additional to the “traditional” recyclables. The county offers a curbside recycling collection program to municipalities for a cost of $0.85 per household per pick-up. Small businesses pay $5.00 per pick-up for “back door” service. Currently 12 of 39 municipalities and approximately 70 small businesses in the county subscribe to these services. Morris County also operates a recycling consolidation center for materials. This center accepts source-separated materials from municipalities, recycling collectors, and small businesses and processes the material for market. Most municipalities operate both a curbside recycling program and their own drop-off site. Drop-off is free. Four times each year, the county sponsors Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Days and collects items such as paints, pesticides, antifreeze, and asbestos. The county promotes a Cut It and Leave It program for grass clippings and backyard composting for other vegetative waste. Many of its municipalities likewise promote these programs and, as a result, some are eliminating curbside collection of yard debris.

Contact: Pam Russell, Director
Northumberland County Waste Management
860 William Street
Cobourg, Ontario K9A 3A9
(905) 372-3329
fax (905) 372-1696

April 1996, Northumberland County (pop. 75,000) implemented a wet/dry curbside collection program in its 15 municipalities. Collection costs have been cut in half and the county is diverting more material. The county uses 10 split dual-collection compactors. The trucks keep bags of wet discards separated from bags of dry discards. Currently the dry waste is sorted at a materials recovery facility (MRF), while the wet waste is landfilled. Plans are in the works to also process the wet waste for composting. About 43% of the residential waste stream arrives at the MRF as dry waste. Of this, 80% is captured and recycled. Four municipalities have implemented variable rates for discard collection. About 60% of their residential waste is coming in as dry waste.

Contact: B. Ellie Arnould
Solid Waste Programs Coordinator
Passaic County Planning Board
Office of Recycling and Solid Waste Programs
1310 Route 23
North Wayne, NJ 07470
(201) 305-5738
fax (201) 305-5737

According to preliminary 1996 data, Passaic County (pop. 453,060) met its 60% recycling goal for overall solid waste. The county documented recycling 48% of its municipal solid waste in 1995. Aside from mandatory recycling, key elements of Passaic County’s waste reduction success include an information packet about source reduction and recycling distributed to new county residents, a yard debris program which encourages composting and the use of mulching mowers, and the implementation of “Wiser Ways,” a program aimed at reducing waste at the source by encouraging citizens to make environmentally sound decisions. According to 1995 data, Passaic County residents each recycled almost a ton of material (1,893 pounds) on average.

Contact: Terry J. Mesch
Pepin County Recycling and Solid Waste
PO Box 39 740 7th Avenue West
Durand, WI 54736(715) 672-5709

Pepin County (1996 pop. est. 7,180) is a remote sparsely populated rural county in the Big Woods of Western Wisconsin. The county’s recycling success has depended largely on source separation and proper preparation and handling of solid waste by citizens. The county’s residents achieved 53% residential waste diversion in 1996. The county operates drop-off sites, curbside pick-up of recyclables in its three incorporated communities, and a weekly mobile collection station in Albany township, located 20 miles from the nearest permanent drop-off site. Materials collected for recycling by Pepin County residents are corrugated cardboard, appliances, motor oil, Kraft paper, chipboard, glass bottles and jars, #1 and #2 plastics, aluminum and steel containers, newspapers, and scrap metal. Yard and garden debris are also composted. The cost of collection, hauling, and processing of recyclables was $49/ton in 1995, compared to $96/ton for collection, hauling and disposal of the remainder of the waste stream.

Contact: Matthew Stern
Solid Waste & Recycling Specialist
City of Portland Environmental Services
1120 S.W. Fifth Avenue, Room 400
Portland, OR 97204-1972
(503) 823-5545
fax (503) 823-4562

Portland (pop. 497,600) revamped its trash collection service in 1992 in order to respond to public demand and state requirements for increased recycling. Volume-based trash rates, weekly curbside collection of a wide variety of materials, a bottle bill, yard debris recovery, and mandatory commercial recycling resulted in a total municipal solid waste recovery rate of 50% in 1996. Private companies franchised to serve areas of the city offer waste management services to Portland residents. According to Portland Environmental Services, the residential disposal rate of 1,468 pounds of solid waste per household is the lowest among large American cities.

Contact: Cathi Lyman-Onkka
Recycling Coordinator
Ramsey County Department of Public Health
Division of Solid Waste 1670 Beam Ave., Suite B
Maplewood, MN 55109-1129
(651) 774-4449 fax
(651) 773-4454

Under a Minnesota State Law, Ramsey County (pop. 482,115) is required to provide opportunities for residents and businesses to recycle, ensure that materials are brought to materials processing centers or directly to markets, and meet regulatory recycling objectives. The county provides recycling grants to cities, which must provide residential pick-up, and has enacted policies designed to encourage waste reduction and enhance recyclables collection. The county operates drop-off centers for yard trimmings and other recyclables, and owns and operates a recyclables processing facility in Saint Paul. The county also provides technical assistance, education, and outreach to area businesses. In addition to achieving 3% waste reduction, in 1996 county residents and businesses recycled 47% of their solid waste stream.

Contact: Ellen Ryan
Program Manager
City of San Jose Environmental Services Department
Integrated Waste Management Program
777 N. First Street, Suite 450
San Jose, Californa 95112-6311
(408) 277-5533
fax (408) 277-3669

In its fiscal year 1996, San Jose (pop. 849,363) diverted 43% of its municipal solid waste from disposal: 45% of its residential waste stream and 41% of its commercial/institutional waste stream. The diversion level for single-family households was 55%. The city contracts with two private companies (the GreenTeam of San Jose and Western/USA Waste) to provide residential trash and recycling services on a weekly basis to 186,000 single-family dwellings and 79,000 multi-family dwellings. Single-family households pay volume-based rates for trash service. Two other contractors collect yard trimmings once a week on the same day as trash and recycling pick-up. In all, the city collects more than 24 different categories of materials for recycling and composting. The city encourages waste reduction in the commercial/institutional sector by assessing fees on trash collection but not on recycling or composting collection. This provides a direct economic incentive for businesses to recycle and reduce their solid waste.

Contact: Jodi John
Recycling Manager
Sarasota County Solid Waste Department
1660 Ringling Boulevard
Fourth Floor
Sarasota, FL 34236
(941) 364-4663
fax (941) 364-4377

Recycling is mandatory for both residents and businesses in Sarasota County (pop. 301,528). The current recovery rate is 43%; 50% in the commercial sector and 38% in the residential sector. Sarasota County’s commercial sector recycling success has been achieved through aggressive education campaigns aimed at local businesses. Businesses must contract independently for trash and recycling collection services; the county programs serve residences only. The county has offered on-site waste assessments, technical advice, workshops, presentations, training, awards programs, and other educational information in order to encourage commercial sector recycling. As a last resort, county Code Enforcement has the authority to ensure businesses comply with the mandatory recycling program.

Contact: Paul van der Werf
Green Lane Environmental
P.O. Box 790
Lambeth, Ontario N0L 1S0
(519) 686-8484
fax (519) 652-9447

The City of St. Thomas (pop. 30,000) is diverting approximately 60-65% of its residential waste through its 3-stream collection/diversion program operated under contract by Green Lane Environmental Group Ltd. Households place their organic waste (food, yard trimmings, and soiled paper) into a 64-gallon aerated cart. Carts are collected every second week. On alternating weeks a wide variety of recyclables (steel, aluminum, #1 and #2 plastics, glass, old newsprint, old corrugated cardboard, magazines and advertising mail) are collected in a “blue box.”

Contact: Jennifer Bagby
Solid Waste Utility
710 Second Avenue #505
Seattle, WA 98104
(206) 684-7808
fax (206) 684-8529

Seattle (pop. 534,700) was a pioneer in charging variable rates for trash disposal; the city’s program was implemented in 1981. The city continues to lead in waste diversion and has provided its residents with a convenient recycling system and a financial incentive to use it. City contractors provide residential curbside recycling and yard trimmings collection (by subscription). Seattle’s multi-family recycling program serves 60% of households in this sector. Businesses contract privately for their trash and recycling services. Businesses and residents can also choose to self-haul trash, recyclables, and yard trimmings to city-owned transfer stations. Seattle set a goal of recovering 60% of its municipal solid waste stream by 1998 as an alternative to building an incinerator. No other large U.S. city has centered its waste management approach on material recovery, rejecting traditional disposal facilities in its long-term planning. In 1996, waste diversion levels in Seattle were 47% in the residential sector, 49% in the commercial sector, and 17% of self-haul materials. The city’s total waste diversion level was 44%.

Contact: Tom Baffa City of Visalia
Solid Waste Fleet Services
366 North Ben Maddox Way
Visalia, CA 93292
(209) 738-3569
fax (209) 738-3576

Visalia (pop. 91,792) began its first pilot route in 1991 to test feasibility of implementation of automated dual-collection of residential trash and recyclables. This pilot was completed in 1992. Citywide implementation of the dual collection program started on 1994 and was complete in April 1996. The city formed a public/private partnership with the Heil truck company in order to study equipment configurations and improve service productivity. At the same time, the city also implemented separate curbside yard trimmings collection. In the few years since the program began, Visalia’s residential diversion rate has climbed to 50%. Visalia staff attribute their success to the partnership with Heil that allowed them to determine equipment needs before making large equipment purchases and their aggressive public education program.

Contact: Dennis Koellermeier
West Linn Department of Public Works
4100 Norfolk Street
P.O. Box 4S
West Linn, OR 97068
(503) 656-6081
fax (503) 657-3237

In 1996 West Linn (pop. 16,557) recovered 52% of its municipal solid waste. Residents can recycle in the city’s curbside collection program, or they can bring materials to the city’s recycling center. The city collects newspaper, cardboard, glass, plastics, tin, aluminum, milk cartons, office paper, and magazines. Yard trimmings are accepted at the drop-off center and collected curbside.

Contact: Robert Fiore
Assistant to the Commissioner
Department of Public Works
20 E. Worcester Street
Worcester, MA 01604
(508) 799-1430
fax (508) 799-1448

Worcester’s curbside recycling program began November 1993 along with a pay-as-you-throw system for the collection of trash. Materials collected for recycling include newspapers and inserts, mixed paper, corrugated cardboard, paperboard, milk and juice cartons, drink boxes, glass bottles and jars, beverage cans, food cans, aluminum trays, and all plastic bottles, jars, tubs, and microwave trays/containers. The city also offers a drop-off site for yard debris and leaves, which are then composted. Although the program has only been in effect a short time, Worcester (pop. 165,387) achieved 54% diversion of residential solid waste in 1996.