This 1992 report by David Morris and Irshad Ahmed was one of the first comprehensive looks at how plant matter derived products could replace many of our fossil fuel derived materials. One hundred and fifty years ago, all of our industrial materials were derived from plants. In 1992, plant matter accounted for less than 5% of non-food materials. The pendulum may be swinging back. New regulations raise the cost of using fossil fuels as industrial materials, while rapid advances in bioprocessing techniques lower the cost of using plant matter. This report describes the past, present, and future of a carbohydrate economy, and offers examples of pioneering products and businesses.